Today, the term “Internet of Things” has encompassed the entire world of ICT. Smart energy, smart agriculture, smart home and building, smart transportation, smart health, and the smart city and environment, in general, are terms that have attracted many politicians, executives, experts and businesses around the world to the unique features of this emerging technology. Today, the Internet of Things has penetrated all aspects of human life with its smart solutions and has the promise of a productive, pleasant and easy future. In this article, we want to inform you about the concept of IoT, its history, functionality and its benefits. So stay with us and follow the rest of the article.
The concept of the Internet of Things and its importance in today’s world
The intern of things or IoT is an interconnected system of computer equipment, mechanical and digital machines, objects, animals, or individuals that are identified with unique identifiers (UIDs) and capable of transmitting data over a network without the need for human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction.
An object on the Internet of Things can be a human with a heart monitor installed in his/her body, or an animal with a biological transponder, or a car with sensors built in to alert the driver about the low tire pressure, or any other natural or man-made object which can transfer data over a network by assigning an IP address.
Today, organizations in various industries and businesses are increasingly using IoT capabilities to operate more efficiently and effectively; they benefit from their IoT achievements, gain a better understanding of their customers, and can provide better services. The Internet of Things improves the decision-making process in the organization and dramatically increases business value.
History of the Internet of Things
The root of the term “Internet of Things”
Kevin Ashton, the co-founder of the US-based Auto-ID Center at MIT, was the first to introduce the term “Internet of Things” in a presentation to Procter & Gamble (P&G) – a multinational consumer goods company in Ohio in 1999. Ashton called his presentation “Internet of Things” to inform senior executives at P&G about the RFID system. Ashton wanted to incorporate the new technology trend in his message in the run-up to the new century. This revolutionary process was nothing but the Internet. On the other hand, Neil Gerschenfeld, a professor at MIT University, published a book titled “When Things Start Thinking” that same year. Although Gerschenfeld did not use the exact term “Internet of Things” in his book, he provided a clear picture of the future direction of IoT.
Internet of Things has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), microservices and the Internet. This convergence helped bridge the gap between Operational Technology (OT) and Information Technology (IT) and enabled the analysis of unstructured data generated by the machine to achieve the desired insight to improve the current status.
Ashton was the first to coin the term “Internet of Things”, but the idea of connected devices has been around since the 1970s, under the heading of “Embedded Internet” and Pervasive Computing.
The platform for the formation of the Internet of Things
The first internet object or device was a beverage machine at Carnegie Mellon University in the United States in the early 1980s. At that time, developers using the web could monitor the status of the device remotely and monitor its performance.
IoT has evolved from machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, that is, machines that are connected through a network without human interaction. M2M refers to connecting a device to the cloud space, managing it, and collecting data.
The IoT provided a sensor network consisting of billions of smart devices by upgrading machine-to-machine communications to a higher level. It connects people, systems, and applications to collect and share data. In other words, M2M, as the basis of this process, provides the communication that guarantees the implementation of the Internet of Things.
IoT is also a natural extension of SCADA. SCADA is a batch of process control software applications used to collect real-time data from remote locations to control equipment and conditions. SCADA systems include hardware and software components. The hardware collects the data and transfers it to the computer on which the SCADA software is installed. This data is then processed and presented in a timely manner. With the evolution of SCADA, the latest generation of SCADA systems have gradually become the first generation of IoT systems to provide the platform for growth and development.
However, the concept of the IoT ecosystem did not materialize until mid-2010. It was this year that the Chinese government announced that the Internet of Things would make strategic the top priority of its five-year plan, giving the objective of the Internet of Things ecosystem a realistic look.
How does the Internet of Things work?
The IoT ecosystem is a suite of web-based smart devices that utilize embedded processors, sensors, and communication hardware to collect, transmit, and process data from the environment. The data collected by the sensors is sent to the cloud or analyzed locally by connecting to an IoT port or Edge Device for analysis. Occasionally, these devices communicate with other related devices and act on the information they receive from each other. These machines do most of the work without human intervention. Of course, people can interact with devices; for example, they can set them up, give them instructions, or access data.
It should be noted that the connectivity, networking and communication protocols used with these web-based devices depend largely on specific Internet of Things applications.
What are the Benefits of the Internet of Things?
Internet of Things brings many benefits to organizations and businesses. With IoT, organizations can:
Oversee the overall business processes;
Improve the customer experience;
Save time and money;
Increase employee productivity;
Integrate and coordinate business models;
Make better business decisions, and finally
Make more money.
IoT encourages companies to rethink their approaches to their business, industry, and market and improve their business strategies by utilizing effective tools.
Internet of Things Applications
IoT technology is used in a variety of fields and has the ability to make it easier for people to do different things. Here are some of the main applications of this revolutionary technology:
The term “smart home” simply means connecting home and its appliances together, through a fully automated system. Here are some of the most important applications of IoT in smart homes:
If you use lamps connected to the Internet of Things in your smart home, these lamps can detect when you leave the house or even rooms, which means you don’t have to worry about turning off the lamps before you leave, because, with the use of IoT, The lamps turn off automatically.
Another important Internet of things application is that you can easily sit in the corner of the house with the controller (such as a smartphone) and turn the lamps on and off; the interesting thing is that theoretically, even if you are on the top of the world, you can easily Control your home lamps from your device! This important feature can make your home more secure when it is empty; for example, you can turn on your home lights at night so that people around you will feel that you are in the house and make burglars not to think of coming into your home.
Home Security Systems
Users can easily watch surveillance cameras via the Internet of Things for 24 hours, 7 days a week, and feel comfortable with home security.
The user can also talk to and see people in front of the house through the microphone by installing the camera and microphone in front of their home, before opening the door.
Another interesting feature is that users can also use the doors that open and close automatically in their homes. These doors use a series of special sensors, which are embedded to open and close them.
If you are lazy enough to not even bother turning off the coffee maker, the Internet of Things is your cure. Coffee makers can turn off automatically after you have had your coffee.
The user can set the device to automatically turn on at a certain time of day; suppose it’s evening and you’re back from the office, no need to turn on the device and make coffee; Enter the house, order coffee from your phone.
Home Heating Systems
There are various appliances on the market that can be used to adjust the temperature of the home. Such devices typically have the ability to turn on and off the heating system by knowing the indoor and outdoor air temperatures. If you connect these devices to the Internet of Things, they can turn on the heating system when the home temperature drops too low and turn off the system when the desired temperature is reached; the interesting thing is that all of this is done automatically.
Another growing use of IoT worldwide is related to its use in wearable gadgets such as smartwatches and wrists. Big companies like Google and Samsung have been investing heavily in IoT in recent years.
Wearable gadgets include a set of sensors and use special software to collect information from their users; these gadgets ultimately analyze the collected data and report the results to the user.
Different companies are planning to equip the Internet of Things with various wearables for health, fitness and the like.
The use of technology in automobiles essentially pursues one primary goal: optimizing the performance of the internal components. However, when cars are equipped with IoT, they can take good care of themselves. IoT can also make cars more secure by utilizing special sensors and, of course, the Internet.
One of the most fascinating things about the Internet of Things is its ability to make cities smart. In a smart city, virtually everything can be controlled through a dedicated room using advanced automated systems. Imagine doing things like smart surveillance, water supply, electricity, transportation, and even urban security; these are just a part of IoT applications for building smart cities.
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